IRCC: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. As its name implies, IRCC (formerly known as CIC) is the federal ministry responsible for admitting new immigrants (both permanent and temporary) and supporting them through settlement services, as well as administering the process of becoming a Canadian citizen.
Criminal Equivalency: In determining whether an individual is criminally inadmissible, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (IRCC) will assess the individual's criminal record per Canada's criminal code. A criminal act committed outside Canada will first be compared to an equivalent act in the Canadian criminal code. The act committed outside Canada will then be considered to have received the punishment that would have been received had it been committed in Canada, regardless of the actual punishment issued in the country where the act occurred.
Criminal Inadmissibility: Individuals wishing to enter Canada either permanently or temporarily as visitors, foreign workers and international students may be denied entry if they or their dependents are deemed criminally inadmissible.
Criminal record: The record of criminal offense committed by an individual. In some jurisdictions it also includes arrests, charges pending, and even charges of which the subject has been acquitted.
Criminal Rehabilitation: Individuals with a criminal record that renders them criminally inadmissible may still enter Canada if they qualify as criminally rehabilitated under:
* Deemed rehabilitation; or
* Individual rehabilitation
Deemed Rehabilitation: Persons who are inadmissible to Canada on grounds of criminality may still be permitted to enter Canada if they qualify for deemed rehabilitation.
Deemed rehabilitation depends on simple passage of time after the completion of a sentence. For indictable offenses, ten years must have elapsed after the completion of a sentence; for two or more summary offenses, five years must have elapsed.
Dependant: A dependent is the family member of an immigrant. Specifically, the spouse, common-law partner or conjugal partner, or child. There are certain requirements that must be met for a child to be considered a dependant.
Deportation Order: An order that states a person will be removed from Canada and permanently barred from the country unless he or she obtains Ministerial consent to return.
Foreign national: A person who is not a Canadian citizen or a Permanent Resident.
Immigrant: A person who has moved to Canada permanently (i.e. not including people living in Canada temporarily as a worker, student or visitor). This definition can include people who have lived in Canada for many years and those who have received Canadian citizenship: as a result, the term "newcomer" is often used to refer to people who have immigrated recently to Canada.
Individual Rehabilitation: Persons who are inadmissible to Canada on grounds of serious criminality and anyone else who does not qualify for deemed rehabilitation may still enter Canada if they qualify for individual rehabilitation.
Under individual rehabilitation, simple passage of time after the completion of a sentence is not enough to qualify for rehabilitated status. To qualify, the rehabilitated person will be assessed according to the rehabilitation factors.
Landed Immigrant: Landed Immigrant is a term previously used to describe Permanent Residents. The term fell out of use in 2002, with the introduction of the Permanent Resident Card; however, sometimes you may still hear Permanent Residents referred to as, "Landed Immigrants".
LINC: Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada. This IRCC (formerly known as CIC) - funded program provides free English language instruction for permanent residents and convention refugees, but only for a limited time. The French language equivalent of LINC is CLIC.
Naturalization: The process of becoming an Canadian citizen, for people born outside Canada.
Newcomer: Somebody who is new to Canada. Often used interchangeably with immigrant, including by government and service agencies. Some people and organizations use this term to refer to a new resident of Canada, regardless of their origin or immigration status. Usually contrasted with long-term resident (who may or may not be an immigrant) or Canadian-born resident.
Permanent Resident: A person who is legally in Canada on a permanent basis as an immigrant or refugee, but not yet a Canadian citizen (formerly known as landed immigrant).
PNP: Provincial Nominee Program. An immigration selection program that allows individual provinces to recommend people to IRCC (formerly known as CIC) for permanent residency, usually based on local economic factors such as the need for workers with certain skills.
Permanent Resident Card (PR Card): A Permanent Resident Card (PR Card) is a document required by permanent residents, including children, who are planning on traveling outside of Canada and who intend to return. The card may also be required to show proof of status in certain situations.
Record of Landing (Form IMM 1000): Document that contains personal data about the newcomer relevant to the time he entered Canada for permanent residence. No amendments are allowed to this document to reflect later changes in applicant's personal data. The only reason for amending this document is to correct a mistake made by IRCC (formerly known as CIC).
Residency Obligation: Canadian Permanent Residents have the right to enter and live in Canada. Canadian Permanent Residents must meet certain residency obligations or they may lose their Permanent Resident status.
These are the minimum requirements:
If you have been a permanent resident for five (5) years or more you must have been physically present in Canada for a minimum of 730 days within the past five (5) years.
If you have been a permanent resident for less than five (5) years you must show that you will be able to meet the minimum of 730 days physical presence in Canada at the five (5)-year mark.